WASHINGTON — For Democrats and Republicans, the early stages of the 2016 presidential contest are worlds apart.
Many Democrats already view Hillary Rodham Clinton as a quasi-incumbent, someone who could take the reins from President Barack Obama. The former secretary of state has made no decisions about her political future but has done little to dampen enthusiasm about another presidential campaign, traveling the country making speeches and preparing to release another book.
Republicans have no clear front-runner and expect a crowded primary field that could include fresh-faced candidates such as New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie, Kentucky Sen. Rand Paul and Florida Sen. Marco Rubio. For a party that typically backs established politicians, 2016 could be the most jumbled GOP White House campaign in a generation.
As the Obama era nears its final midterm elections, the campaign to succeed him has already begun: Prospective candidates on both sides have been quietly courting donors, taking steps to build an organization and making scouting trips to early voting states such as Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina. The official starting line, however, is likely a year away.
The coming year will be about building the foundations of a campaign, compiling a policy agenda and raising money for House, Senate and gubernatorial candidates who could become future allies.
And each side faces its own intra-party divisions.
Republicans are in the middle of a feud that pits establishment figures against tea party adherents. Democrats run the risk of souring on Obama’s brand — polls have shown a decline in his popularity since his re-election — and face a brewing split between liberals and centrists.
For Democrats, the presidential race hinges on whether Clinton runs again.
The former New York senator and first lady to President Bill Clinton dominated early polls among Democrats, with Vice President Joe Biden a distant second. There is no obvious challenger from the left, considering Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren’s vow to serve her full six-year term.
Potential candidates such as Maryland Gov. Martin O’Malley and former Gov. Brian Schweitzer, of Montana, visited early voting states but remain largely unknown to most voters. Some liberals might encourage former Vermont Gov. Howard Dean to run again, but Clinton has the potential to unite the party.
Clinton’s movements will be closely watched this year. She avoided most political activity in 2013 but is expected to be a top draw at Democratic fundraisers. The spring release of her memoir about her State Department years will include a national book tour, allowing her to discuss themes that might precede a presidential campaign. Until she announces her decision, every word will be parsed for clues.
“It’s maybe an unprecedented situation, with Hillary Rodham Clinton being as strong as an incumbent president running for re-election,” said Democratic strategist Tad Devine. “I really see her in a unique situation.”